Have a general question about employment law? Want to share a story? I welcome all comments and questions. I can't give legal advice here about specific situations but will be glad to discuss general issues and try to point you in the right direction. If you need legal advice, contact an employment lawyer in your state. Remember, anything you post here will be seen publicly, and I will comment publicly on it. It will not be confidential. Govern yourself accordingly. If you want to communicate with me confidentially as Donna Ballman, Florida lawyer rather than as Donna Ballman, blogger, my firm's website is here.

Friday, November 9, 2018

Majority of States Protect Employees of Small Employers, But Not Florida

We've reached a tipping point where a majority of states now have laws that protect employees of smaller employers. Most federal discrimination laws protect employees only if their employers have 15 employees or more (20 for age discrimination, all employers for Equal Pay Act, 4 - 14 for national origin/citizenship under the The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986). But a majority of states have stepped in and decided to protect their working people even if they work for a smaller employer.

Not Florida, of course (except our age discriminaiton law also requires only 15 employees). Florida remains, and will continue to remain after the election, one of the most anti-employee states in the nation.

Still, it's something to give us hope when even many very red states have protected more employees. A total of 37 states, plus the District of Columbia, now protect employees of small businesses. Here's a breakdown of states and how many employees a business has to have to be covered under anti-discrimination laws:

  • Alaska - all employers
  • Arkansas - 9
  • California - 5
  • Connecticut - 3
  • Delaware - 4
  • D.C. - all employers
  • Georgia - 10 for equal pay, all for age
  • Hawaii - all employers
  • Idaho - 5
  • Indiana - 6, all for age
  • Iowa - 4
  • Kansas - 4
  • Kentucky - 8
  • Maine - all employers
  • Massachusetts - 6
  • Michigan - all employers
  • Minnesota - all employers
  • Mississippi - all employers
  • Montana - all employers
  • New Hampshire - 6
  • New Jersey - all employers
  • New Mexico - 4
  • New York - 4
  • North Dakota - all employers
  • Ohio - 4
  • Oklahoma - all employers
  • Oregon - all employers
  • Pennsylvania - 4
  • Rhode Island - 4
  • South Dakota - all employers
  • Tennessee - 8, for gender wage discrimination all employers
  • Vermont - all employers
  • Virginia - all employers
  • Washington - 8
  • West Virginia - 12, for gender wage discrimination all employers
  • Wisconsin - all employers
  • Wyoming - 2

Even in anti-employee Florida, some counties and municipalities have stepped up to cover smaller employers. In Miami-Dade, Broward, Hillsborough, Orange, Lee and Pinellas Counties, employers with 5 or more employees are covered by discrimination ordinances.

If 16 states, including even ultra-red Oklahoma, can cover all employees, why won't Florida step up to help its working people? Ask your elected officials.

Friday, October 26, 2018

Pro-Employee States Implement Private Employee Retirement Plans

With Republicans threatening to cut Social Security benefits, retirement savings has become a national issue. Some states (not anti-employee Florida, of course) have tackled this issue by implementing retirement plans for private-sector employees.

The latest state to implement a private-sector retirement plan is Connecticut. They join California, Illinois, Maryland and Oregon in implementing automatic-enrollment IRAs. These are state-facilitated programs that private financial firms administer. Participants are automatically enrolled and pick the percentage of their pay they want to put into the plan from each check. Absent an election, there is a set amount put away.

New Jersey and Washington State have created online marketplaces listing plans administered by private firms that meet minimum standards. 

Massachusetts and Vermont have implemented multiple-employer group 401(k) plans available to eligible employers. In Massachusetts, that means only small nonprofits.

These plans will be lifesavers for the many employees who don't have an employer pension plan. As an example, OregonSaves, the first of these plans, has collected more than $7.6 million in contributions in over 19,000 accounts, a number that increases about $200,000 per week, according to estimates by Oregon’s state treasurer.
Half of private-sector employees have no retirement plan, and many have little or no retirement savings. A third of Americans have less than $5000 saved, 20% have no savings, and a third of baby boomers who are retired or about to retire have zero to $25,000 in retirement savings. We as taxpayers will bear the burden of caring for these retirees, so it makes financial sense for states to step in. 

It's time for states to step in where the federal government is about to fumble badly. Let's make sure working people who retire can live comfortably. 

Friday, October 19, 2018

10 Workplace Rights You Think you Have – But Still Don’t

So I received this email:
Ms. Ballman; 
I happened to come across your article from 2011 regarding 10 Workplace Rights You Think you Have – But Don’t. As both an attorney and a HR/Payroll consultant, your article is either outdated, specific to Florida, or just completely inaccurate. I would urge you to do your research and correct the artcle. If you would be open to discuss the areas of your article that inaccurate, I’d love to provide your details, however, I’m not going to waste my time (or yours) if you don’t care. As it stands, your article provides incorrect information and extreme disservice to employees in general. 
Best Regards,
(name omitted)
First of all, wow, how rude! Is that any way to approach someone you've never met? Yikes! It was so bizarre I thought I was being attacked by a Russian bot or something. Still, I decided to take it seriously. My initial reaction was that a 7-year-old article might well be out of date. So I reviewed it and, sure enough, it's still both accurate and timely. When I asked my emailer for specifics on what they found to be incorrect, their response was, "I’ll just let you look like you don’t know what you are talking  about, since it’s obvious you don’t care." Well, I do care, even though I'm still not sure whether I'm dealing with a Russian bot.

Anyhow, bot or not, I'm posting an updated version.

As an employment lawyer who has represented employees for 32 years, I find that everyone thinks they already know their rights. After years of watching legal dramas and courtroom reality TV, Americans have absorbed lots of legal information. Unfortunately, most of it is wrong. Before you mouth off to your boss about your rights, I thought I'd share with you the top 10 laws most employees think exist- that don't.

1. Wrongful Termination

Most American workers think employers must have a reason to fire you. Surely your employer can’t just be arbitrary and unfair. Surely they can’t just wake up in a bad mood and fire you because they didn’t like your shirt. And there’s the rub. Because, in every state but Montana, your employer can fire you for any reason or no reason at all unless you have a contract saying otherwise. In most states, they don’t even have to give a reason.

But that’s not right, you say. There’s a law against wrongful termination. There must be. Well, there should be, but there isn’t. What we have instead, in 49 states, is at-will employment. At-will employment is that nasty doctrine that says employers can fire at-will, for any reason or for no reason.

Oh, sure, most states recognize some exceptions to the at-will doctrine (my home state of Florida recognizes zero exceptions). Most states find that a termination that is against public policy, such as being fired for refusing to violate a law, reporting a legal violation, doing something in the public interest like jury duty, or exercising a legal right like making a worker’s compensation claim, is unlawful. Another exception a majority of states recognize is an implied contract, which sometimes allows a court to find that a handbook or employer policy is a legal contract. A few states hold that employers owe employees an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, but most let employers be as arbitrary as they want to be.

Other protections employees have in the 49 at-will states are: contracts, whether individual or union, saying they can only be fired for cause; discrimination laws; whistleblower laws; the Family and Medical Leave Act; and state and federal employment laws.

But my point is this: if a majority of Americans think employers must have good cause to fire you, why isn’t there a law? Why haven’t legislators who are supposed to represent workers’ interests passed the number one legal protection employees think they have? Legislatures could pass a law like Montana’s Wrongful Discharge From Employment Act of 1987, which lets employees terminated without good cause sue for up to 4 years of lost wages.

We, as taxpayers, are footing the bill for employers who make arbitrary employment decisions. Why not make employers who fire employees without just cause pay for their arbitrariness? Why not at least penalize arbitrary employers through the unemployment compensation system. Why not lift the maximum rate employers can be charged to these arbitrary employers? Why skew the system to punish employees but not employers?

By continuing to allow arbitrary firings without consequences to employers, we end up forcing the unemployed onto food stamps, welfare, and other taxpayer-supported benefits. And small business owners like me end up paying for these arbitrary employers by having higher unemployment compensation tax rates.

2. Right To See Your File

You probably don't have this right, so don't go stomping into HR and making demands. No federal law requires private employers to allow employees to inspect or copy their own personnel files. Only some states require employers to allow you to look at your file and even fewer require your employer to allow you to copy items in your file. Many times, the only way you'll find out what's in your file is if you sue and you get it with a Request for Production, or if you subpoena it in unemployment or other proceedings.

3. Breaks

No federal law requires employers to offer any work breaks for anything, even meals. Some state laws do require work breaks, but it's not a majority. No federal law even requires bathroom breaks, but it's probably a health issue, so OSHA might protect you if your employer denies bathroom breaks. If you're a nursing mother, you're entitled to an unpaid break to express breast milk. Some states also offer protection for nursing moms taking breaks. Lots of people get fired for insisting on breaks they're not entitled to. Don't do it.

4. Hostile Environment

A hostile environment is not illegal. Workplace harassment is not illegal. Bullying is not illegal in any state except, oddly enough, Tennessee, and that's only for government employees. If you write a long email to HR or your boss complaining that you are being "harassed," or, you're "in a hostile work environment," you aren't protected against retaliation. While harassment due to race, age, sex, national origin, religion, disability, or another legally-protected category is illegal, just plain "harassment" is not. So reporting it that way doesn't protect you against retaliation. When I ask why people didn't report that they were being treated differently than coworkers of a different race, sex, etc. they usually say something like, "I didn't want to go there." Well, if you'd gone there, firing you for your complaint would have been illegal. But firing you for saying you were harassed or bullied: not illegal.

Appropriate remedies may be to discipline or warn the harasser, to move the harasser, under some circumstances to move the victim, to do training, or in extreme cases, to terminate the harasser. But they don’t have to take any action at all. They only have a duty to maintain a safe workplace. You might still have to work with the harasser. Don't say you refuse to work with the harasser. You might be fired for refusing to work. If you return and are retaliated against or continue to be harassed, report it again.  If the employer allows retaliation or continued harassment, that is the time to get an attorney involved.

5. First Amendment In Private Workplaces

Only government employees have free speech protections, and those are very limited. Otherwise, you can be fired in most states for your speech (including political speech) in the workplace or outside the workplace. You can't be fired for speaking on behalf of coworkers in order to improve work conditions or for objecting to something illegal, but be very careful to make sure you're protected before you speak out.

If you're complaining about working conditions, reporting discrimination, objecting to not being paid overtime, or reporting illegal activity, you are likely legally protected in every state. 

In some states, employee speech about politics is protected. In Florida, it's a felony to "discharge or threaten to discharge any employee in his or her service for voting or not voting in any election, state, county, or municipal, for any candidate or measure submitted to a vote of the people." California, Colorado, New York, North Dakota and Louisiana say it's illegal to retaliate against an employee for their off-duty participation in politics or political campaigns. Here in Broward County, it's illegal to fire employees based upon political affiliation. If you work for government, there's the good old First Amendment to protect you. Plus, the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 prohibits political affiliation/activity discrimination against federal employees. 

Speech about religion, women’s (or men’s) rights, and unionization is almost always protected.

Otherwise, you don't have free speech rights at work. Be very sure you have legal protection before speaking out.

6. Privacy At Work

Your boss can read your work e-mails and monitor your Internet usage at work. If your employer is going to listen into or record phone calls, there are some legal restrictions. You also have privacy rights in your medical information. There is no federal law protecting your social security number, but California, Texas and New York do offer limited protection against employers displaying your number.

The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 specifically says your company can't intercept your emails. The problem is, it has exceptions for consent. That means if your company has a policy on email interception or had you sign an agreement, a handbook, or anything else they managed to slip in front of you agreeing that email at work belongs to them, they skate. The law also says it's legal to monitor your email if the company is the email provider or if they monitor your email in the ordinary course of business, such as for customer service.

In other words, there are so many loopholes that your company probably fits into one. Until the courts say otherwise or Congress tightens this law, it likely doesn't help you.

Some states have a tort called "intrusion on seclusion" or "invasion of privacy." There are some protections against highly offensive conduct that's intrusive. The problem is, you probably won't be able to prove you had any expectation of privacy in your emails or other activities at work.

7. Right To Work

I hear all the time, "But this is a right to work state!" Usually while I'm reviewing a non-compete agreement. Right to work doesn't mean your employer can't restrict your ability to work for competitors after you leave. What it means is they can't make you join a union in order to work there. Some states, but not all, are right to work states. If your supervisor tells you that signing a non-compete agreement is meaningless or that it won't be enforced, they are lying to you.

8. Retaliation

There is no law prohibiting an employer from retaliating against you for reporting or objecting to policy violations, ethical violations, bullying, or the fact that your boss is a jerk. If you do something that puts you in a legally protected category, you may be protected from retaliation. Examples would be objecting to discrimination, making a worker's comp claim, or taking Family and Medical Leave. If you're reporting something illegal the company is doing, you may be a protected whistleblower, but you'd better research the specific whistleblower laws that apply, because there are many hoops to jump through on some whistleblower cases.

If you complained about working conditions on behalf of yourself and coworkers, you may be protected against retaliation under the The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), which protects employees who engage in concerted activity to improve working conditions.

For more about when retaliation may be illegal, check out my post on that topic.

9. Discrimination Because Your Boss Doesn't Like You

If your boss is discriminating against you for being you, that isn't illegal. Favoritism, nepotism, and being obnoxious are generally not illegal. Discrimination based on age, pregnancy, race, sex, religion, national origin, disability, color and genetic information are illegal. In some states, other categories such as sexual orientation, gender identity, marital status, and being a domestic violence victim are protected.

10. Suing the Boss

As much as it may be satisfying to sue your ex-boss personally, you probably can't. Federal and many state discrimination laws, Family and Medical Leave Act (in some states the courts disagree on this), and most other employment laws simply don't allow it. One major exception is wage and hour violations. Some state discrimination laws do hold supervisors liable for violations. But what's the point? Unless they're rich, you probably won't be able to collect anyhow.
Well that's wrong. What can I do about it?

Since most people think these laws exist, maybe it's probably high time for them to actually be passed. E-mail your congressperson and state representative now and complain if you don't like the fact that you're not protected. Here's how to find out how to contact your representative in Congress:
https://www.commoncause.org/find-your-representative

Here's a website with contact information for elected officials at the state and federal level:
http://www.usa.gov/Contact/Elected.shtml

You do have rights. Among them is the right to vote. If you don't like the law, exercise it and tell your representatives you demand some legal protections. In the meantime, don't get yourself fired by getting your legal advice from television. When in doubt, contact an employment lawyer in your state about your legal rights at work.

Friday, October 12, 2018

No, Your Employer Can't Force You To Quit

People come to me and say, “I was forced to quit.” Huh? How did the employer do that? Gun to head? Torture devices? Kidnapped loved one? Because your employer can’t make you quit. Quitting is entirely, 100%, up to you.

Just because your boss or HR comes to you and says you have to resign, doesn’t mean you should. My usual advice is never, ever submit your resignation, no matter how much they demand it, unless you have another job lined up or the company offers you an incentive to resign that makes it worth your while.

You need to weigh your options carefully before agreeing to resign. Now is the time to negotiate. If they want you gone, let them pay you to go away. Otherwise, make them fire you. You need to consider the upsides and downsides to quitting versus being fired. Here are some things to consider.

Why You Shouldn’t Quit
You haven’t complained about illegal harassment or discrimination that occurred: It may be a bit late in the game, but if you didn’t follow the company’s written policy on reporting harassment based on race, age, sex, religion, national origin, disability, etc. then you may lose potential claims against the employer. Now is the time to put together your formal, written complaint of discrimination and harassment. Submit it to HR as soon after the meeting where they asked you to resign as you can. If you think the resignation request is being pushed by your harasser, say so. Tell them how others of a different race, age, sex, religion, or whatever your protected category is were treated differently. Tell them that those others are not being asked to resign. Ask them to do a prompt investigation. Sometimes, they really don’t know about the discrimination and reporting it might stop the termination process in its tracks.

They aren’t offering anything: If they don’t offer severance or some other monetary incentive, why would you quit? Don’t make it easy on them. If they want you out of there, they should offer something, in writing.

You might lose your right to unemployment benefits: Some unscrupulous employers use the resignation as an excuse to claim you aren’t entitled to unemployment. It could be your word against theirs if you don’t properly document that you were forced to resign.

They want you to sign something right away: If the employer is shoving something in front of you and demanding you sign it, consider that a red flag. They’re trying to trick you. Don’t sign anything you don’t understand or are too distraught to think about clearly. Tell them you need time to think about it. Take it to an employee-side employment lawyer if there’s anything in it you don’t fully understand.

You have claims against the company: If you think you have a discrimination, whistleblower, worker’s compensation retaliation, breach of contract or other claim against the employer, you may have leverage to negotiate a better exit package. Don’t sign a release of claims without fully exploring your options.

You aren’t fooling anyone: Some people think a resignation looks better on a resume. Maybe. But if you resign and are then unemployed for months or years, who do you think you’re fooling? HR people aren’t (mostly) dumb, so they will know something happened that prompted your resignation.

Why You Should Quit

Great severance package: If you are offered a severance package that will tide you over sufficiently when you’re looking for another job, then you might want to take the deal. Make sure you aren’t also signing away your right to work for a competitor, your pension, or something else of value. Take it to a lawyer to be sure.

Won’t challenge unemployment: In most states, the mere promise that you’ll get unemployment without a hassle isn’t much incentive. Unemployment is usually a fraction of what you were making. However, if you think they might have a basis to successfully challenge your unemployment, then you might consider the resignation as long as they make the promise about unemployment in writing.

You have an alternative: If you have a job offer you’ve been considering, have a startup company you want to spend more time on, or think it might be time to retire, then a forced resignation might help you make a smooth transition. Make sure they agree they won’t tell potential employers or customers anything other than that you left to pursue other options.

If your employer is asking you to resign, you have some power. Now is the time to explore your options, talk to a lawyer, call your union rep, and read everything carefully. You may have more leverage to negotiate in this situation than you think.

Friday, October 5, 2018

Massachusetts Limits Noncompetes - Are You Listening Florida?

Florida has a real chance to turn the governorship and some legislative seats blue this year. Because Florida is one of the worst states for employees in the nation, a change in leadership means an opportunity to change some of the worst anti-employee laws. And in my opinion the worst of the anti-employee Florida laws is our noncompete law.

Massachusetts, after years of wrangling, finally passed a noncompete law that protects its workers against oppressive agreements amounting to virtual indentured servitude. The law went into effect October 1.

Here are some of the provisions of the Massachusetts law that could and should be adopted in Florida:

  • No noncompetes for hourly employees
  • No noncompetes for interns
  • No enforcement of noncompetes for employees fired without cause or laid off
  • No noncompetes for minors
  • Continued employment alone is not consideration for a noncompete
  • Noncompetes can't last more than a year, with the exception of an instance where an employee takes trade secrets
  • Employers have to pay at least 50% of wages for the length of the noncompete period

These are very reasonable restrictions on noncompetes that simply don't exist under the anti-employee Florida law. What are some other restrictions that might be reasonable for noncompetes in Florida that don't exist now?


Noncompetes are bad for economic development, bad for wages, and bad for employees. If you think Florida should follow Massachusetts and other states in limiting abusive noncompete agreements, tell your candidates and vote wisely.



Friday, September 28, 2018

Upset At Work? Don't Walk Out Or They'll Claim You Quit

I see scenarios where employees leave work early for entirely sane reasons. For instance:

  • They are threatened by a coworker or customer and feel unsafe
  • They are so upset by a confrontation with management or a coworker that they are crying
  • They are sexually harassed
  • They are called racial, ethnic, or other discriminatory names

Yet in each of these circumstances, I also see employers claim the employee quit or abandoned their position. Why the disparity?

As I see it, the employer was looking for reason to get rid of the employee and the employee gave them the excuse they needed. Otherwise, of course the employer would understand the employee leaving early to regroup, calm down, or get to safety.

In many cases, the employee actually calls or goes to HR or management and explains what happened and why they are leaving. They are told to go ahead and go. Yet they are still accused of abandoning their position or quitting.

What's an employee to do?

Here are some suggestions if you face intolerable conditions at work:

If you feel unsafe, call 911: Even this might not save your job, since many employees get fired for the very act of calling the cops. Still, this is probably better than leaving. However, if you are truly unsafe, such as being physically threatened, get the heck out of there. No job is worth your life.

Put it in writing: Rather than a call or in-person conversation, put your complaint in writing. Don't say you were bullied or "harassed." Say you were sexually harassed or harassed due to race, age, national origin, disability, or other protected category so you are protected against retaliation.

Ask permission: Instead of saying you are leaving, ask, again in writing, if it's okay to leave to calm down or get to safety. If you have permission, it's harder for them to say you quit or abandoned your job. If the permission is verbal, put that in writing. "This will confirm that you called me today at 4:32 p.m. and advised that I have permission to leave early due to my complaint of sexual harassment against John Doe. Thank you for your consideration."

Even these steps might not save your job, so try to stay if you can. But if you have to leave, document the best you can before you go.



Monday, September 17, 2018

You Don't Have To Work In Dangerous Post-Hurricane Conditions

After a storm, I usually get lots of calls and emails about employers making employees work in conditions they deem unsafe. In general, you don't have to work in unsafe conditions, so I'm re-posting this for those affected by Florence. Here's what OSHA says about workplace safety:
You have the right to a safe workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) was passed to prevent workers from being killed or seriously harmed at work. The law requires that employers provide their employees with working conditions that are free of known dangers. OSHA sets and enforces protective workplace safety and health standards. OSHA also provides information, training and assistance to workers and employers. Workers may file a complaint to have OSHA inspect their workplace if they believe that their employer is not following OSHA standards or that there are serious hazards. Contact OSHA at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742) if you have questions or want to file a complaint. We will keep your information confidential. We are here to help you.
OSHA also has a flyer about safety during disaster cleanup here. Some basic safety rules:
  • Keep an adequate amount of clean water for drinking.
  • Make sure workers are trained to do any complex or hazardous tasks.
  • Provide the proper equipment such as gloves, respirators, boots, lifting equipment and eye protection.
A host of other specific fact sheets are here. Some particularly useful ones for hurricanes are:
Bottom line for employers is: don't be stupid. Don't have employees in business attire climbing ladders and removing debris. Make sure employees are properly dressed. Don't cheap out and try to use your clerical employees to move downed trees or work around downed power lines. The lawsuit you will face when someone is seriously injured or killed will cost you way more than hiring the correct folks for the job.

The worker's page for reporting problems and with more resources is here.

By the way, if your "exempt" employees are doing debris removal or other scut work, they probably aren't exempt from overtime for that work. But that's another issue for another day.