No Federal law requires your employer to carry health insurance coverage for employees (a few states, like Massachusetts and Hawaii, are different). However, once they do have coverage, there are some Federal requirements employers must comply with. If your employment has ended, read the paperwork you get on COBRA to find out about your rights to continued coverage. If you're still employed or about to be employed, here's what you need to know about your insurance.
Non-discrimination: Your employer must not discriminate in providing or reducing coverage based on , for example, age, disability or pregnancy.
Plan description: The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) requires your employer to provide a description of your plan and how to make claims.
Privacy of records: If your employer does have access to medical records, such as when it’s self-insured, it must comply with the privacy requirements of HIPAA.
Specific coverage requirements: Certain procedures must be covered once insurance is provided. For instance, if mastectomies are covered, then reconstructive surgery must also be covered. Insurance can’t restrict the length of hospital stays for the birth of a child to less than 48 hours for vaginal delivery or 96 hours for c-section.
Preexisting conditions: HIPAA limits exclusions for preexisting conditions to no more than 12 months, and allows plans to look back no more than 6 months. Pregnancy and genetic information can never be excluded. If you were covered by a prior plan and had less than a 63 day break in coverage, preexisting conditions won’t be excluded. Most children can’t be excluded based on preexisting conditions.
Health factors: You can’t be denied insurance or have benefits reduced due to your health status, physical or mental illness, claims experience, receipt of health care, medical history, genetic information, conditions arising from domestic violence, participation in hazardous activities, or disability.
Certificate of coverage: The employer must provide a certificate of coverage automatically at certain times, and upon request.
Young adults: Your plan must allow you to have your children covered up to age 26.
Lifetime limits: No lifetime limits on coverage are allowed anymore. Most plans won’t be able to have annual limits.
Rescission: If you become ill, the insurance company can’t look for unintentional mistakes on your application as an excuse to deny coverage.
Eliminate or reduce coverage: Your employer can eliminate coverage or change plans at will.
a. Your employer has to disclose if it believes its plan is “grandfathered” and exempt from some of the new health care reform’s requirements. If it is grandfathered and significant changes are made to the plan, it might lose its grandfathered status and have new requirements.
b. Non-grandfathered plans must provide access to pediatricians and OB-GYNs and coverage of preventive services with no cost sharing.
c. Read your plan and understand it. Don’t wait until a crisis to understand your health care coverage and rights.
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